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Jonathan Jones
Jonathan Jones

Knight SA - Instrumental Discussed Part 6 VERIFIED

Caregivers are often involved in decision making with and, in some circumstances, for care recipients. However, the nature of caregivers' involvement varies. Types of decision-making roles include directive; participatory; supportive or guiding; advisory; advocacy; and trying to hold back and let the older adult decide (Garvelink et al., 2016). Care recipients with cognitive impairments may require surrogate decision making, as discussed below, although individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment often have the ability to express preferences and make choices (Feinberg and Whitlatch, 2001; Whitlatch, 2008). Frail older adults may be able to express their preferences, but lack executional autonomy or the ability to carry out their decisions without considerable assistance from a caregiver (Gillick, 2013). Caregivers and care recipients may confront many kinds of decisions, including decisions about treatment choices, location of care, and end-of-life care (Edwards et al., 2012; Garvelink et al., 2016; Gillick, 2013).

Knight SA - Instrumental Discussed Part 6

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The music of the Classical period (1730 to 1820) aimed to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: the ideals of balance, proportion and disciplined expression. (Note: the music from the Classical period should not be confused with Classical music in general, a term which refers to Western art music from the 5th century to the 2000s, which includes the Classical period as one of a number of periods). Music from the Classical period has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than the Baroque music which preceded it. The main style was homophony,[49] where a prominent melody and a subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost voicelike and singable. New genres were developed, and the fortepiano, the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the main keyboard instrument (though pipe organ continued to be used in sacred music, such as Masses).

Performance is the physical expression of music, which occurs when a song is sung or when a piano piece, electric guitar melody, symphony, drum beat or other musical part is played by musicians. In classical music, a musical work is written in music notation by a composer and then it is performed once the composer is satisfied with its structure and instrumentation. However, as it gets performed, the interpretation of a song or piece can evolve and change. In classical music, instrumental performers, singers or conductors may gradually make changes to the phrasing or tempo of a piece. In popular and traditional music, the performers have a lot more freedom to make changes to the form of a song or piece. As such, in popular and traditional music styles, even when a band plays a cover song, they can make changes to it such as adding a guitar solo to or inserting an introduction.

Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music, often within (or based on) a pre-existing harmonic framework or chord progression. Improvisers use the notes of the chord, various scales that are associated with each chord, and chromatic ornaments and passing tones which may be neither chord tones nor from the typical scales associated with a chord. Musical improvisation can be done with or without preparation. Improvisation is a major part of some types of music, such as blues, jazz, and jazz fusion, in which instrumental performers improvise solos, melody lines, and accompaniment parts.

Written notation varies with the style and period of music. In the 2000s, notated music is produced as sheet music or, for individuals with computer scorewriter programs, as an image on a computer screen. In ancient times, music notation was put onto stone or clay tablets. To perform music from notation, a singer or instrumentalist requires an understanding of the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or a genre. In genres requiring musical improvisation, the performer often plays from music where only the chord changes and form of the song are written, requiring the performer to have a great understanding of the music's structure, harmony and the styles of a particular genre (e.g., jazz or country music).

Timbre, sometimes called "color" or "tone color" is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument.[62] Timbre is what makes a particular musical sound different from another, even when they have the same pitch and loudness. For example, a 440 Hz A note sounds different when it is played on oboe, piano, violin, or electric guitar. Even if different players of the same instrument play the same note, their notes might sound different due to differences in instrumental technique (e.g., different embouchures), different types of accessories (e.g., mouthpieces for brass players, reeds for oboe and bassoon players) or strings made out of different materials for string players (e.g., gut strings versus steel strings). Even two instrumentalists playing the same note on the same instrument (one after the other) may sound different due to different ways of playing the instrument (e.g., two string players might hold the bow differently).

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. A 2015 article on concerto soloists in major Canadian orchestras, however, indicated that 84% of the soloists with the Orchestre Symphonique de Montreal were men. In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands. Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres.[95] In the 1960s pop-music scene, "[l]ike most aspects of business, [in the 1960s,] songwriting was a male-dominated field. Though there were plenty of female singers on the radio, women ...were primarily seen as consumers:... Singing was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl, but playing an instrument, writing songs, or producing records simply wasn't done."[96] Young women "...were not socialized to see themselves as people who create [music]."[96]

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape. Some pop bands use recorded backing tracks. Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) music. Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

As world cultures have come into greater global contact, their indigenous musical styles have often merged with other styles, which produces new styles. For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the United States' multi-ethnic "melting pot" society. Some types of world music contain a mixture of non-Western indigenous styles with Western pop music elements. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. Some works, like George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music, while Gershwin's Porgy and Bess and Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story are claimed by both opera and the Broadway musical tradition. Many current music festivals for non-Western music include bands and singers from a particular musical genre, such as world music.

In this article, we used the concept of moral imagination to analyse a business case from South Asia as a basis for imagining responsible leadership responses to a dilemmatic crisis situation. This article contributes to RL theory by developing a more fine-grained understanding of cross-culturally shared ethical orientations pertaining to instrumental and integrative RL approaches and their implications. It has also helped to further refine understanding of integrative RL logic, which can be understood as a substantive form of responsibility that involves assuming accountability to a broad range of stakeholders and for consequences of leadership actions and decisions in the past, present and future. It has further extended the understanding of responsibility by introducing a time dimension (ex-post and ex-ante responsibility). In light of a knowledge gap in research on RL in emerging country MNC, this article has provided new insights for the application of the frameworks of local CSR responsiveness and global CSR standardization. In particular, we argued that an integrative RL approach requires balancing of local and global consideration and the integration of both due to the moderation orientation of integrative RL. Moreover, we also discussed behavioral decisions that this approach entails. Future research should empirically study antecedents and consequences of an integrative RL approach in developing and emerging country MNC. Miska et al. (2016) identify multicultural experience in top management teams as an antecedent for balancing (moderating) local responsiveness and global standardization. However, other factors that help leaders to practise an integrative approach may play an equally important role and need to be studied. At the micro level these factors include moral identity (Eisenbeiss, 2012), the ability to balance contradictions, complex thinking (Maak et al., 2016), and paradoxical leadership (Waldman, 2014). Particularly, the concept of moral imagination should be further explored and empirically studied. At the macro level such factors could include industry and its context, access to responsible business education, and engagement in cross-sector partnerships. Further research should also investigate the impact of country characteristics (e.g., power distance, feminine/masculine society, individualistic/collectivist culture; Hofstede et al., 2010) on leader propensity to apply an integrative RL style. 041b061a72


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